Odyssey

A Discussion on Fate and Free Will in the Homer Odyssey

The Odyssey is one of the oldest stories ever told that was written nearly three thousand years ago. Unfortunately, not much is known of the author who composed such a widely celebrated story alongside Iliad. The author is said to have been a Greek writer, who is presumed to have lived in the early eighth and late ninth eras before Christ. The storyline of this novel is customarily attributed to a blind writer by the name Homer. The best part is that his name has been maintained by the original author, as publishers still use this name in the recent publishing. However, a few Greeks of the past, those who existed in the third and second centuries before Christ have questioned the existence of Homer. They have also doubted whether the two most celebrated stories were written by the same writer. So many people believe that the author of these two most epic stories is the same.

Homer’s reconstruction often yields to so many fictions and non-realities of the eighth and seventh centuries before Christ in Greece. The out-dated collective organization is evident in the setup of the Odyssey and it portrays more of the Homer’s Greece than Odysseus’s social setup (Philemon 178). Homer is seen to substitute the pantheon of deities in his days for the relation with their gods with whom the Mycenaean Greeks used to worship. Odyssey recognizes the City of Troy as its main story and the starting point that he expertise a new order around the struggle of the heroes of Odyssey. It is a tale that that is full of fate and free will in one of its main characters are known as Homer. The story takes place on the fantastic islands in the foreign lands, and it is a tale of wandering.

The characters in the Odyssey are not as free as it is in the normal community set up. Their destinies are just not certain, and there are many changes taking place and happening in the story. However, there are many ways to that the changes are happening. It is that fate and free will, are not commonly exclusive. The gods are seen to contribute to the way that fate is unfolding to Homer. They are seen as the subjects to all the same fickleness of human emotions that are witnessed in the characters. A connection of these scenarios gives a simple notion of just the fate of the story.

A close look at the Greek Mythology reveals the existence and relevance of the gods that existed in all eras. At times that are merely seen as the conditions for the human development of the story. In the Odyssey story, the divinities make the main theme and contribute eminently on fate and free will in Homer’s character.

Fate is seen to play a great role in the Greek world. Its place as described in the Greek culture is not as it can be seen in the normal world scenario. The word as used in the Greek mythology is just not fated as it is understood. By most standards, fate can be described as the occurrence of situations for unknown reasons that no human beings can comprehend or have a switch completed. Nevertheless, in the Greek culture, as depicted in by Homer, fate is not an occurrence that just happens. The gods are the initiators and originators of fate, and they are responsible for making things happen that might not have happened. The common citizens and players may not be able to know the involvement of god’s in fate and cannot explain the reason for the occurrence of some phenomenon. They think that fate took its course, but in reality, it is something that was engineered by the gods.

On the other hand, free will is not engineered as described in the Odyssey. Free will involves a collection of actions that can be controlled and one has full authority over his aspirations and direction.  The gods were seen to set up a path and ultimate direction that had to be followed by each and every one. Else the existence of free will and fate in Odyssey were not mutually exclusive ass described above. The lifestyle depicted in Odyssey depended on individual effort and responsibility (Puchner 18). The characters are seen to manipulate their destiny. They left no chance for fate and natural situations to control their future. The characters are seen to have an influence on their future from their past experiences.

The gods are seen as the main controllers of the behavior of all the people in the Greek culture as described in the Odyssey. They were responsible for the control of all the aspects of life and the direction of the story as well as life’s situations. As a result, the people were obliged to follow strictly and were not allowed to choose how to live on their own. The gods in the Odyssey were responsible for the captivity of the Odysseus for over eight years. They later declined to let the Odysseus free for over a decade. However, the captor had to be informed of the release of the Odysseus so that they could find their way home. The decision of Odysseus to leave was opposed by Kalypso, who lured him with an offer of immortality.  He was to remain, guide his house so that he can be made immortal.

Odysseus made a decision that was favored by gods and decided to leave. As a result, his act brought several opinions as the decision to leave said to have been known earlier by the gods. The gods were said to have let him go hence it was fate that was only known by the gods who let him go (Homer 276). Nevertheless, the idea that it originated from the gods is not convincing enough as Odyssey himself had made the decision to go. It is seen that the gods had restrained him so much that he needed the freedom to himself. He almost gave up and had a reason to conclude that it was his fate. A critic of Odyssey, known as Ann says that blaming the gods for one’s fault and fate was illogical and never applied in other situations. She puts it clear that there is a big disparity in the situations that fate occurs as well as the acceptance of the happening. She also reveals that real heroes never gave in to difficult situations facing them by concluding that it is fate and hence blaming the gods for it. It is at this point that she defines free will as the difference between having fate and accepting it (Homer 227).

The gods are said to control the fate of people in a certain direction before letting things take a natural course. However, the gods were only good at the interference of one’s life. Unfortunately, they never took their free will for the positive reasons. A character is known as Zeus while talking with the gods identifies the works that had was done by the gods. The gods depended on the lifestyles of the people as well as maximizing on their downfalls. Zeus’s view clearly implies that people are to be held accountable for their choices since they are very capable of making their decision. Another critic gave his observation on the Odyssey and saw that the characters such as Homer never took responsibility. Hence, the gods were seen to replace that gap and forced them to behave as expected. The goods were responsible for warning the community and for questioning any event that was not acceptable to their culture.

Aigi ethos is questioned for an event taking place in the Odyssey. A messenger is sent to question him. It is seen that he accepts the advice. However, he still had the freedom to choose what to do. The free will of Aigi this would enable him to take any of the options that would favor him. The fact that he was only questioned revealed that he had much power and freedom to determine his freedom. Aigi ethos takes friendly advice on what to do and not do. The book also describes him as an observant courier (Homer 326).

The book also reveals an example of the interference of the gods and a clear occurrence of both free will and fate. Odyssey clearly depicts a new meaning to free will in the Greek mythology and its representation in the book. It is observed on several occasions in the story that some actions affected the natural occurrence of an outcome. Athena goes to Ithaka and his advice to Odysseus’s son on a call to the assembly (Puchner 96). The assembly was used to push for the rights of the members of the community. In this case, it was to mobilize the community to oppose Penelope’s suitors that were seen as the traitors in the community.

Odysseus was Penelope husband, and he was being waited to come home for such a long time that the wife, Penelope gave up and allowed suitors to hang around her. It is also seen that Odyssey was seeing other ladies while on his way home. As a result, Athena thought that the community had to look for ways to keep men away and in order. In this case, the gods are seen to have a great role to the occurrences explained in the story. The role does the gods have manifested again. Interference of the Athena the suitors made him move slower than expected. The gods were seen to get home Odyssey as quickly as possible. The gods interfered as they wanted a certain income out of the relationship of Athena and the Odysseus. Critics say that the situations by the gods only ensure that the outcome came due to fate, but it only made it happen. However, it is observed that helping situations along does not assure that it happens. In this case, the gods normally target a certain result, and it is for this fact that disqualifies it from a free will. Therefore, the two themes in the book can only be differentiated.

Many times in the story of Homer, several choices were made that were not consistent with the views of the community. They were also seen to alter with the expected income. Observation on an instance that free will is surer of the representation. The decisions made throughout the book were not wise at all, and the characters are seen to behave in a vicious manner all through the whole story. Their behavior is attributed to the gods, who were known to interfere and cause a change in the history by always making a change in the course of history. They always ensured that there were different results and weird choices were made. There was a smooth turn up of events when the goods were seen sit back and allow people to make their choices. Athena advise the Odysseus to try suitors and other lands so that they can get excused from death (Homer 423).

The Odyssey is also seen to represent free will in many of their given selections. Choices were given by gods, but most significantly people were allowed to make their decisions. The choice Odysseus made to cover himself to go straight so that they can get back home. The choices made by the characters are all involved in the myth and evidenced by free will. An example of a free will choice was made by the wife to remarry again after waiting for the husband for eight years. The Odyssey, alongside another Greek Mythology, gives us the direction of our daily activities (Puchner 162). The audience can read and learn several morals and values that can be emulated. Heroes were the finest kinds of the myths. There are values and morals that we can agree with and copy the morals learned from the characters in the story. On the other hand, there are other morals that the readers should not imitate.

Conclusion

In summary, the Odyssey shows the different occurrences with the vast diversity of the world. It clearly brings out the world of wonderful magic and gods who are in control of situations. They are majorly representing the characters in the plain view of fate and free will in determining their daily activities. They show that the gods can interfere with all the planned activities hence one cannot do much about it. People are advised to sit back and wait for the unfolding of their choices. They should let their selections fall where they want to. Likewise, free will is applied to the story, and its twists and turns are evidently seen as expected in the Greek Mythology classics.

character

Character is…

A character can be defined as a function a person has or lacks moral virtues and vices. Philosophically, the moral character of an individual determines what kind of person he or she is likely to be. In addition, the moral character determines other aspects such as virtual and ethics which are critical for co-existence among human beings. The virtues and the vices that constitute a character can be identified by one’s day to day behavior or one’s style of response to certain circumstances. An example is an honesty. A person who has the characteristic of honesty will be disposed to tell the truth when asked about something. The dispositions to a character are long-term and tend to be stable. Dispositions are also robust and are consistent in the wide range of conditions. This is because it is virtually impossible for a person who has a character of honesty to consistently tell the truth to one party and constantly lie to another. The character is at the intersection of issues in empirical psychology and normative ethics. Therefore, it is possible to approach character through observing the standards set by normative ethics. Alternatively, it is possible to approach character based on the provisions of the moral character. The following paper is an evaluation of my own character based on the opinion of philosophers.

My Character According to Aristotle

Aristotle’s views on character are the basis on which other philosophers place their opinions on the same. He provides the most psychologically insightful account of a character based on virtues. According to Aristotle, the excellence of a character is referred to as a state since it is impossible to alter it. In addition, every virtue is responsible for a particular action or feeling. Aristotle gives an example of the virtue of goodness or having a mild temper as responsible for managing anger. Personally, I am of a mild character, and I am also kind. However, I also get angry over certain issues which are against my beliefs as well as individuals who tend to be unfair to others because personally, I am of a fair character. According to Aristotle, the character of being mild does not mean that a person cannot get angry over certain issues. In fact, people of mild character are supposed to get angry at certain things such as various forms of injustices and mistreatment. In addition, such individuals should also be willing to stand up for themselves as well as for the people they care about. Aristotle views any action contrary to this as deficiency of character of an irascible individual. On the other hand, it is inappropriate to take offense and be angry for no rational reason. Therefore, Aristotle views the character as a state that is primarily determined by the environment. For example, intensive anger is regarded as appropriate but at other times, calm detachment is. Also, any non-virtuous person is faced with inner doubts even if he/she appears to be in harmony with virtuous people. This implies that character is an inner virtue that drives one towards certain activities. Even if a vicious person appears as single-minded when pursuing a particular disdain for justice, material goods or power, they have to seek the company of others in one way or another in order to forget their evil actions. Aristotle also relates moral character to the aspects of continence and incontinence. Continence is basically a form of self-mastery. Both the continent and the incontinent persons have internal conflicts are aware of the inner turmoil. Personally, I consider myself to be a continent character because I always recognize what is right and what should be done and implement it despite certain struggles and a pull of recalcitrant feelings. Most incontinent individuals may recognize what is right and morally right but fail to do it as a result of the recalcitrant feelings.

Character According to David Hume

As a Scottish philosopher, David Hume is known for his influential radical philosophy of naturalism, empiricism, and skepticism. He explored the psychological basis of human nature that determines character. According to Hume, human behavior and characters are primarily governed by passion and not reason. He postulated that innate ideas did not exist, and only objects of experience bring about knowledge. As opposed to David Hume, Plato focuses on the virtues of ethics as the determinant of moral character. However, the happiness of a human being is the independence of us and the human life. According to Plato, the character of goodness is superior to all intelligibility. Plato also borrows Socrates’s idea that virtue is knowledge and the moral fault of ignorance. In addition, virtue is essential regardless of the utility of itself. Virtue ethics is a character trait of the soul and determines the inner harmony. Consequently, the character traits of the inner soul determine the overall character of a person. In addition, virtue ethics urge individuals to develop their character basically for the purpose of having a good life. For instance, the virtues of honesty, kindness, respect and being considerate of other people lead to goodness. This is because such virtues are grounded in the ultimate of eternal truth in forms that are recognized only by the soul. Therefore, based on Plato’s opinion of virtues, it means that my personal characteristics of being considerate of people who are different from myself, kindness, respecting and being fair to everybody are likely to be an inherent part of me founded on eternal truth, and therefore they are likely to remain with me for the rest of my life. Eudaimonia, also known as the praiseworthiness of virtuous life is described by Plato as rooted in Good. Plato also links the character of being Good with godliness. From this description, I can refer my character is godly because generally, it revolves around the Good. For instance, respect and fairness is a good moral character which is also godly. By being considerate and treating everyone fairly, other people are likely to reciprocate the same and treat me fairly and respectfully and consequently leading to harmony. On the other hand, my character could be as a result of passion according to David Hume. This, therefore, means that the fact that I am respectful, faithful and considerate is because I have a passion that drives me towards this behavior.

Character According to John Stuart Mill  

The classical text of utilitarianism is where the ethical theory of John Stuart Mill was articulated. The basis of the classical text is to justify utilitarianism on the moral foundations. According to Stuart Mill, every action tends to be right according to its capacity to impact on overall happiness (Zivi 49). Therefore, he focuses on the consequences of the character rather than the ethical sentiments or rights. Moral judgments presume rules according to John Stuart Mill. In addition, moral character is built on social rules. In addition, moral character is characterized o either is right or wrong, and it is named according to the final consequences. For instance, a morally wrong character is referred as wrong because we think that it should be sanctioned through formal punishment, bad conscience or public disapproval. I can base my character on the provisions of John Stuart Mill. For instance, I have a characteristic of being extremely kind to everyone. Therefore, I can measure the outcome of my character based on Stuart’s ideas. For example, the fact that I am a kind person to everyone, I should gauge the moral status of this character depending on its end results. If I am kind to everyone, most people are going to reciprocate the same and be kind to me. Another reason I relate with John Stuart Mill is that his basis for judging moral character supersedes the moral or ethical standards that have been set by the society, and the only thing that matters is the end consequences of the character. Personally, I am traditional, and therefore, I should judge actions based on the moral and ethical standards that have been set by the society. On the contrary, I do not judge people based on their race, appearance or sexual preference though is the way of the traditionalist. Instead, I choose to view actions beyond their moral standards and focus on the end results. For instance, a person’s homosexuality may be regarded as morally wrong by traditionalists. However, analysis of the end results does not affect anyone negatively and adds to the happiness of such families. Therefore, according to John Stuart Mill, I am likely to support any idea as long as its result generally increases the happiness of the community regardless of the moral or ethical standards.

Character According to Thomas Hobbes 

According to Thomas Hobbes, human behavior is guided by five main conditions: Our actions and motives are based on internal biomechanical processes. Secondly, the determinant of good and evil is basically the preferences of an individual depending on what he/she loves or hates. Also, Hobbes asserts that there is no objective value in the strictly natural condition. Besides, there is no justice or injustice in the strictly natural condition and that in terms of the power of mind and body, all human beings are naturally equal, and therefore, nobody should strive to dominate the other. Therefore, Hobbes is a naturalist, and if our laws and social conventions are taken away, humans can fall in the state of nature which should govern the character of individuals. Hobbes’s philosophy draws heavily on aspects of survival which are a determinant of one’s character. Therefore, basing my personal characteristics on Hobbes’s philosophy, the moral character of kindness or respectfulness is a result of particular circumstances which dictate that I should be kind and respectful. Secondly, my character of fairness to all people regardless of their race, sexual orientation or appearance could be as a result of nature. The fact that I live in a multicultural society comprising of people with differences in sexuality, race, and appearance could have influenced my character of being considerate.

Daisies (1966)

Daisies is a Czech film that shows the misadventures of two young women. They believe that the world is spoilt. By doing pranks, they do not take anything seriously including men, war, food and clothes. They experiment with everything, and it is kind of a utopia where women do not have to follow the rules of etiquette. So today my mission is to write a perfect post and an essay, that can touch everyone. Of course I need someone to write my essay, to help me to figure out what kind of structure I should use in essay on Daisies. I think it’s a masterpiece of cinematography.

In one of the first scenes, Marie I and Marie II are dancing under an apple tree and then eat the apples. I think this symbolic to the Edenic fall. They are seen lazing around with their pajamas while eating breakfast snacks like croissants and fruits. I think this represents the sins of greed, sloth and lust. I also think that their silky pajamas are very fashionable. I also feel that their games represent the dangers of idleness and lack of ideas. Their behaviors might also be they are displacing men in order to take the role of dominance, thus resulting in them behaving oppressively and stupidly like how men do. Their dressing is also to confuse and humiliate older men. I also think that they want to be noticed and understand what their position in society is, since everybody seems not to notice them.

I think that the most important message that Marie I and Marie II were trying to put across is that we should pick our battles carefully. Instead of worrying about socialsins, we should worry about the dictatorship of the communists. This message is still relevant in modern times since it tells us to choose our battles wisely, focus our attention on the things that are important and refuse to conform to the arbitrary convection.

“The Japanese Footbridge” by Claude Monet

Claude Monet was a famous French painter whose artworks gave contributed significantly to the Impressionism art movement. He started his painting career in 1889. Since then, he exhibited a series of paintings that were related by the intended themes or subjects. One of his series of paintings included the water lilies series which included “The Japanese Footbridge.”  His paintings focused on the depiction of various cultures and art movements in different parts of the world (Claude Monet).

In the painting, Monet exposes the central role of nature in the Japanese culture. He comes up with fusion of the Japanese motifs with his impressionist palette. He transforms the garden into paint but maintaining the green color of the background. The color is a depiction of the garden setting. Monet reveals a kind of fusion as well as excellent comprehension of the nature’s primacy in the painting.

Color is one component of painting that is perfectly portrayed in the painting. The two main colors in the painting are green and blue. There is a blue bridge that is suspended across the garden like a canopy. Below the bridge are the waters and seemingly fresh foliage. It gives the viewers of the painting an excellently attractive as well as a brightly colored scope of the water. Besides the blue and green colors, there are white, yellow as well as pink water lilies that float in a given perfect pattern thereby giving balance to the two aforementioned main colors (Claude Monet). The green paints give a suitable description of the water’s glittering greenery making the painting more attractive to look at. “The Japanese Footbridge” is a great paint that can make individuals love paintings and other artworks.

Parenting Styles – Best Tips

Authoritarian parenting style

My parents exhibited this type of parenting style because they made rules that were to be obeyed without question failure to do what they expect it leads to punishment as a consequence of disobedience. For instance, time for playing PC games was regulated, but studies were given more time. The homework assignment was never a routine check especially by my father who never gave a damn whether I have done the assignment or not.

Father Vs Mother

My parents did pose different parenting styles. For example, the father was totally an authoritarian parent while the mother was authoritative. When it is time for school, my mom used to wake me up and prepare my breakfast so that I won’t be late. Contrary to my father; he will wake up and drive past my school heading to his precious homeland security job. Our family moral value had to uphold such as self-respect and obedience.

Developmental consequences

This had a great impact on my childhood life even in my adulthood. I did tend to love my mother more than my dad because he would explain and correct every mistake you make. I believe with the right parent around you, who understands you better than you live to be a great person in life. Consequently, up to date, I exhibit some characters that pin me down such as low self-esteem as well as I can’t make a perfect choice before making a consultation. More so, it is always difficult for me to tackle challenging tasks because I tend to give up very quickly due to lack of aggressiveness.

Stability of the parenting style

However due to a constant changing environment and constant inventions in technology, my mother’s parenting style tend to combine both permissive and authoritative styles. However, my father has changed significantly; he is now a concerned and caring father figure. He looks after me, make calls. This is due to increased number of teenagers joining terrorist groups such as ISIL.

My parenthood style

Becoming a parent in the future, I will assume both authoritative and permissive styles of parenting, because I need to be keen on what will benefit my child and also give freedom to make his or her choices in life provided it is not out of socially acceptable morals and responsibilities.